Negara dan Kapasitas Adopsi Inovasi: Studi Kasus Tranformasi Pertahanan Indonesia Periode 1998-2014

Ilman Dzikri

Abstract


This article attempts to explore the explanative factor behind the ineffective Indonesian security sector reform. In general, Indonesian military reform can be divided into several aspects: normative regulative framework), substantive (military doctrine), structural (military organization) and defense economics. This article applies Horowitz’s framework of military diffusion, which mainly sees financial intensity and organizational capital as the principal factors in explaining military innovation adaptability in international systems. At the end of this article, I conclude that both aspects have proven to be the main factors behind Indonesian ineffective defense transformation.


Keywords


Indonesia; Defense Transformation; Arms Modernization; Military Innovation

References


Ayers, J. R. (1996). Major, Military Operations Other Than War in The New World Order: An Analysis of Joint Doctrine for the Coming Era. Ohio: Graduate Research, Air Force Institute of Technology.

Chang, F. K. (2014, Oktober 1). Comparative Southeast Asian Military Modernization-I. Dipetik Desember 17, 2015, dari The ASAN Forum: http://www.theasanforum.org/comparative-southeast-asian-military-modernization-1/

Croissant, A., & Kuehn, D. (2009). Patterns of civilian control of the military in East Asia's new democracies. Journal of East Asian Studies, 9(2), 187-217.

Damanik, D. T. (2016, Mei 13). Wawancara dengan Kepala Dinas Penelitian dan Pengembangan Angkatan Darat. (I. Dzikri, Pewawancara)

Dirgantara Indonesia. (2014, September 17). PTDI Serahkan Pesawat CN 235 Patroli Maritim (Patmar) Ke-3 Untuk Kementerian Pertahanan. Dipetik Juni 12, 2016, dari PT Dirgantara Indonesia: http://www.indonesian-aerospace.com/view.php?m=release&t=release-detil&id=83.

Dowdy, J., Chinn, D., Mancini, M., & Ng, J. (2014, Februari). Southeast Asia: The next growth opportunity in defense. Diambil kembali dari McKinsey & Company: https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/dotcom/client_service/Aerospace%20and%20Defense/PDFs/SEA%20Defense%20Report%202014%20-%20Final.ashx

Haryanto, F. D. (2014, Maret 14). TNI Tambah 24 Panser Anoa. Dipetik Juni 10, 2016, dari Sindo News: http://nasional.sindonews.com/read/844395/14/tni-tambah-24-panser-anoa-1394798598.

Horowitz, M. C. (2010). The Diffusion of Military Power: Causes and Consequences for International Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

IISS. (2001). The Military Balance 2001: The Annual Assessment of Global Military Capabilities and Defense Economics. London: Routledge.

Kementerian Keuangan Republik Indonesia. (2013). Data Pokok APBN 2007-2013. Diambil kembali dari Kementerian Keuangan Republik Indonesia: http://www.anggaran.depkeu.go.id/dja/acontent/Data%20Pokok%20APBN%202013.pdf

Kementerian Pertahanan Republik Indonesia. (2008). Buku Putih Pertahanan Indonesia. Jakarta: Departemen Pertahanan Republik Indonesia.

Kementerian Pertahanan Republik Indonesia. (2014). Modernisasi Alutsista TNI Untuk Membangun Indonesia Kuat. Jakarta: Pusat Komunikasi Publik Kementerian Pertahanan.

Kompas. (1999, Desember 10). Ketua KPP HAM Timtim Albert Hasibuan: Kami Masih akan Mendengar Jenderal Wiranto. Dipetik Mei 13, 2016, dari Kompas: http://www.kompas.com/kompas-cetak/9912/10/utama/kami01.htm

Kristanti, E. Y. (2009, November 30). Keunggulan Kapal Perang Buatan Indonesia. Dipetik Juni 12, 2016, dari Viva News: http://nasional.news.viva.co.id/news/read/109754-ini-kelebihan-kapal-perang-buatan-indonesia

Kusumadewi, A., & Armenia, R. (2016, Maret 2). Kisah Embargo AS dan Sukhoi Rusia di Balik Jet Tempur RI. Dipetik Mei 20, 2016, dari CNN Indonesia: http://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20160301150059-20-114600/kisah-embargo-as-dan-sukhoi-rusia-di-balik-jet-tempur-ri/

Lebang, S. (2016, Mei 13). Wawancara dengan Paban Sahli Bid. Kesejahteraan, Koperasi, dan Yayasan Mabes TNI AD. (I. Dzikri, Pewawancara)

Leonardi. (2016, Mei 20). Wawancara dengan Kepala Bagian Sarana Pertahanan Kemhan. (Penulis, Pewawancara) Jakarta.

Liputan 6. (2003, April 23). Megawati Menandatangani Imbal Beli Sukhoi. Dipetik Mei 1, 2016, dari Liputan 6 News: http://news.liputan6.com/read/53399/megawati-menandatangani-imbal-beli-sukhoi

Marboen, A. (2013, Agustus 15). Sukhoi SU-27 Flankers TNI AU akan lengkap tahun depan. Dipetik Mei 25, 2016, dari Antara News: http://www.antaranews.com/berita/390709/sukhoi-su-27-flankers-tni-au-akan-lengkap-tahun-depan

Mearsheimer, J. J. (2001). The Tragedy of Great Power Politics. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

Mietzner, M. (2006). The Politics of Military Reform in Post-Soeharto Indonesia: Elite Conflict, Nationalism, and Institutional Resistance. Washington, D.C.: East-West Center.

MPR RI. (2000). Ketetapan MPR Nomor VII/MPR/2000. Jakarta, Indonesia: Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat Republik Indonesia.

Muhaimin, Y. A. (2008). Bambu Runcing dan Mesiu. Yogyakarta: Tiara Wacana.

Prabowo, P. (2014, September 19). KRI Teluk Bintuni Kapal Angkut Tank Terbaru TNI AL. Dipetik Juni 12, 2016, dari Satu Harapan: http://www.satuharapan.com/read-detail/read/kri-teluk-bintuni-kapal-angkut-tank-terbaru-tni-al

Prameswaran, P. (2016, Maret 20). Indonesia Plans New Joint Military Commands. Dipetik Juni 14, 2016, dari The Diplomat: http://thediplomat.com/2015/03/indonesia-plans-new-joint-military-commands/.

Rabasa, A., & Haseman, J. (2002). The Military and Democracy in Indonesia: Challenges, Politics, and Power. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.

Republik Indonesia. (2002). Undang Undang No. 3 Tahun 2002. Jakarta, Indonesia: Kementerian Sekretariat Negara.

Republik Indonesia. (2004). Undang Undang Nomor 34 Tahun 2004. Jakarta, Indonesia: Kementerian Sekretariat Negara.

Republik Indonesia. (2012). Undang Undang No. 16 Tahun 2012. Jakarta, Indonesia: Kementerian Sekretariat Negara.

Republika. (2015, Oktober 5). Kogabwilhan Jalan di Tempat. Dipetik Juni 14, 2016, dari Republika: http://www.republika.co.id/berita/koran/teraju/15/10/05/nvqror1-kogabwilhan-jalan-di-tempat

Rinakit, S. (2005). The Indonesian Military After The New Order. Singapura: Institute of South East Asian Studies.

Schreer, B. (2013). Moving beyond ambitions? Indonesia’s military modernisation. Australia: Australian Strategic Policy Institute.

Sebastian, L. C. (2006). Realpolitik ideology: Indonesia’s use of military force. Singapura: Institute of South East Asian Studies.

Sebastian, L. C., & Gindarsah, I. (2013). Taking Stocks of Military Reform in Indonesia. Dalam J. Rüland, M.-G. Manea, & H. Born, The Politics of Military Reform. Experiences from Indonesia and Nigeria (hal. 29-56). Heidelberg: Springer.

Sebastian, L. C., & Suwandi, M. S. (2001). Transforming The Indonesian Armed Forces: Prospects and Challenges. S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Indonesian Programme. Singapura: Nanyang Technological University. Diambil kembali dari https://www.rsis.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/ER111125_Transforming_Indon_Armed_Forces.pdf

Simmons, B. A., Dobbin, F., & Garrett, G. (2006). Introduction: The international diffusion of liberalism. International Organization, 60(4), 781-810.

Suara Merdeka. (2003, Juni 23). Sukhoi Tak Sampai ST MPR. Dipetik Mei 20, 2016, dari Suara Merdeka: http://www.suaramerdeka.com/harian/0306/23/nas9.htm.

Sukma, R., & Prasetyono, E. (2003). Security Sector Reform in Indonesia: The Military and the Police. The Hague: Clingendael - Netherland Institute of International Relations.

Sutianto, F. D. (2016, April 18). Beli Heli Pemburu Kapal Selam dari PTDI, Ini Alasan TNI AL. Diambil kembali dari Detik News: http://finance.detik.com/read/2016/04/18/143046/3190513/1036/beli-heli-pemburu-kapal-selam-dari-ptdi-ini-alasan-tni-al

Tempo. (2015, Juli 3). Anggaran Pertahanan Indonesia Seharusnya Rp 700 Triliun. Dipetik Desember 23, 2015, dari Tempo: https://m.tempo.co/read/news/2015/07/03/078680789/anggaran-pertahanan-indonesia-seharusnya-rp-700-trilun

Tentara Nasional Indonesia. (1998). TNI Abad XXI: Redefinisi, Reposisi dan Reaktualisasi Peran TNI. Jakarta: Markas Besar TNI.

Tentara Nasional Indonesia. (2010). Doktrin Tentara Nasional Indonesia Tri Darma Eka Karma. Jakarta: Markas Besar TNI.

United Nations. (2013). The Global Reported Arms Trade. Diambil kembali dari The UN Registers of Conventional Arms: http://www.un-register.org/Background/Index.aspx.

Widjajanto, A. (2010). Reformasi militer dan transformasi komponen pertahanan Indonesia. Jakarta: Pacivis.

Widjajanto, A., & Keliat, M. (2006). Reformasi Ekonomi Pertahanan di Indonesia. Jakarta: Pacivis UI.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.7454/global.v18i2.305

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.