Investigating Multiple Citizenship in International Relations: Rethinking Globalisation, Nation-States and Social Contract

Hyunji Kang


Multiple citizenship was once thought to signify disloyalty to the nation-state and threaten the sovereign international system, hence considered an aberration that should be limited. However, International Relations is in the process of reconceptualising its approaches and moving away from state-centrism so that it may better address the challenges of a transnationalising world. Examining the concept of multiple citizenship provides an opportunity to expand IR research agendas and transnationalise IR theory. Employing a multidisciplinary literature review, this article identifies the possible ways through which investigating multiple citizenship can contribute in advancing the discipline’s theorisations. Firstly, it contends that an analytical focus on multiple citizenship enriches IR theory by re-examining concepts which have not been adequately questioned in traditional IR and enabling deterritorialisation of the sovereign nation-state, de-conflation of the nation from the state, and reconsideration of the relationship between citizens and nation-states. Secondly, multiple citizenship can serve a base for considerations about globalisation and the future of the nation-state; it can also be used to obtain glimpses into issues, which may affect larger portions of the global population in the future. This article concludes by arguing for more serious probe to the concept of multiple citizenship in IR.


Dual citizenship; transnationalism; globalisation; nation-states; sovereignty

Full Text:



Adamson, F. B., & Demetriou, M. (2007). Remapping the Boundaries of `State’ and `National Identity’: Incorporating Diasporas into IR Theorizing. European Journal of International Relations, 13(4), 489–526.

Agnew, J. (1994). The Territorial Trap: The Geographical Assumptions of International Relations Theory. Review of International Political Economy, 1(1), 53–80.

Alarian, H. M., & Goodman, S. W. (2017). Dual Citizenship Allowance and Migration Flow: An Origin Story. Comparative Political Studies, 50(1), 133–167.

Appadurai, A. (1996). Modernity at large: cultural dimensions of globalization. Minneapolis, Minn: University of Minnesota Press.

Blatter, J. (2011). Dual citizenship and theories of democracy. Citizenship Studies, 15(6–7), 769–798.

Blatter, J., Erdmann, S., & Schwanke, K. (2009). Acceptance of Dual Citizenship: Empirical Data and Political Contexts (Working Paper Series “Glocal Governance and Democracy”). Lucerne: University of Lucerne.

Bloemraad, I. (2004). Who Claims Dual Citizenship? The Limits of Postnationalism, the Possibilities of Transnationalism, and the Persistence of Traditional Citizenship. International Migration Review, 38(2), 389–426.

Brubaker, R. (1992). Citizenship and nationhood in France and Germany. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univiversity Press.

Cooper, A. H. (2002). Party-Sponsored Protest and the Movement Society: The CDU/CSU Mobilises Against Citizenship Law Reform. German Politics, 11(2), 88–104.

Demmers, J. (2002). Diaspora and Conflict: Locality, Long-Distance Nationalism, and Delocalisation of Conflict Dynamics. Javnost - The Public, 9(1), 85–96.

Dijkink, G., & Van Der Welle, I. (2009). Diaspora and Sovereignty: Three Cases of Public Alarm in the Netherlands. Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie, 100(5), 623–634.

Escobar, C. (2004). Dual Citizenship and Political Participation: Migrants in the Interplay of United States and Colombian Politics. Latino Studies, 2(1), 45–69.

Faist, T. (2000). Transnationalization in international migration: implications for the study of citizenship and culture. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 23(2), 189–222.

Faist, T., Gerdes, J., & Rieple, B. (2004). Dual Citizenship as a Path-Dependent Process. The International Migration Review, 38(3), 913–944.

Gamlen, A. (2014). Diaspora Institutions and Diaspora Governance. International Migration Review, 48, S180–S217.

Gamlen, A., Cummings, M. E., & Vaaler, P. M. (2017). Explaining the rise of diaspora institutions. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 1–25.

Guild, E. (2006). Cultural Identity and Security: Immigrants and the Legal Expression of National Identity. Presented at the Global Jean Monnet Conference ECSA-World Conference, Brussels, Belgium.

Hammar, T. (1985). Dual Citizenship and Political Integration. International Migration Review, 19(3), 438.

Han, D., Choi, M.-H., & Kim, T. (2017). Debates on the Expansion of Multiple Citizenship. Homo Migrans, 17, 112–138. [In Korean].

International Organization for Migration. (2011). International Migration Law N°25 - Glossary on Migration (2nd ed.). Geneva: International Organization for Migration.

Jacobson, D. (2001). The Global Political Culture. In Identities, Borders, Orders (NED-New edition, Vol. 18, pp. 161–180). University of Minnesota Press. Retrieved from

Jones-Correa, M. (2001). Institutional and Contextual Factors in Immigrant Naturalization and Voting. Citizenship Studies, 5(1), 41–56.

Kannof, A. U. (2011). Dueling Nationalities: Dual Citizenship, Dominant and Effective Nationality, and the Case of Anwar al-Aulaqi. Emory International Law Review, 25(3), 1371–1430.

Kim, N. H.-J. (2013). Flexible Yet Inflexible: Development of Dual Citizenship in South Korea. The Journal of Korean Studies (1979-), 18(1), 7–28.

Koinova, M. (2017). Beyond Statist Paradigms: Sociospatial Positionality and Diaspora Mobilization in International Relations. International Studies Review, 19(4), 597–621.

League of Nations. Convention on Certain Questions Relating to the Conflict of Nationality Law (1930). Retrieved from

Leblang, D. (2017). Harnessing the Diaspora: Dual Citizenship, Migrant Return Remittances. Comparative Political Studies, 50(1), 75–101.

Leinonen, J. (2012). INVISIBLE IMMIGRANTS, VISIBLE EXPATS? Americans in Finnish discourses on immigration and internationalization. Nordic Journal of Migration Research, 2(3), 213–223.

Levitt, P., & Glick Schiller, N. (2004). Conceptualizing Simultaneity: A Transnational Social Field Perspective on Society. The International Migration Review, 38(3), 1002–1039.

Mazzolari, F. (2005). Determinants of Naturalization: The Role of Dual Citizenship Laws (Working Paper No. 117). University of California, San Diego: The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies.

McCrone, D., & Kiely, R. (2000). Nationalism and Citizenship. Sociology, 34(1), 19–34.

Newman, D. (2001). Boundaries, Borders, and Barriers: In Identities, Borders, Orders (NED-New edition, Vol. 18, pp. 137–152). University of Minnesota Press. Retrieved from

Ong, A. (1999). Introduction. In Flexible Citizenship: The Cultural Logics of Transnationality (pp. 1–26). Duke University Press.

Pogonyi, S. (2011). Dual citizenship and sovereignty. Nationalities Papers, 39(5), 685–704.

Reis, M. (2004). Theorizing Diaspora: Perspectives on “Classical” and “Contemporary” Diaspora. International Migration, 42(2), 41–60.

Renshon, S. A. (2001). Dual citizenship and American national identity. Washington, D.C.: Center for Immigration Studies. Retrieved from

Safran, W. (1991). Diasporas in Modern Societies: Myths of Homeland and Return. Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, 1(1), 83–99.

Schlenker, A., & Blatter, J. (2014). Conceptualizing and evaluating (new) forms of citizenship between nationalism and cosmopolitanism. Democratization, 21(6), 1091–1116.

Schlenker, A., Blatter, J., & Birka, I. (2017). Practising transnational citizenship: dual nationality and simultaneous political involvement among emigrants. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 43(3), 418–440.

Sejersen, T. B. (2008). “I Vow to Thee My Countries” - The Expansion of Dual Citizenship in the 21st Century. International Migration Review, 42(3), 523–549.

Shain, Y., & Barth, A. (2003). Diasporas and International Relations Theory. International Organization, 57(3), 449–479.

Sökefeld, M. (2006). Mobilizing in transnational space: a social movement approach to the formation of diaspora. Global Networks, 6(3), 265–284.

Spiro, P. J. (1997). Dual nationality and the meaning of citizenship. Emory Law Journal, 46(4), 1411–1485.

Spiro, P. J. (2010). Dual citizenship as human right. International Journal of Constitutional Law, 8(1), 111–130.

Stasiulis, D., & Ross, D. (2006). Security, Flexible Sovereignty, and the Perils of Multiple Citizenship. Citizenship Studies, 10(3), 329–348.

Strange, S. (2003). The Declining Authority of States. In D. Held & A. G. McGrew (Eds.), The global transformations reader: an introduction to the globalization debate (2nd ed, pp. 127–134). Cambridge, UK : Malden, MA USA: Polity Press ; Distributed in the USA by Blackwell Pub.

Vertovec, S. (1997). Three Meanings of “Diaspora,” Exemplified among South Asian Religions. Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, 6(3), 277–299.

Weiss, A. (2005). The Transnationalization of Social Inequality: Conceptualizing Social Positions on a World Scale. Current Sociology, 53(4), 707–728.

Wendt, A. (2004). The State as Person in International Theory. Review of International Studies, 30(2), 289–316.

Wimmer, A., & Glick Schiller, N. (2003). Methodological Nationalism, the Social Sciences, and the Study of Migration: An Essay in Historical Epistemology1. International Migration Review, 37(3), 576–610.

Wohlin, C. (2014). Guidelines for snowballing in systematic literature studies and a replication in software engineering. In EASE ’14 Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering (pp. 1–10). London: ACM Press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.