Strategy To Strengthen Cooperation Between The European Union And The Mediterranean Countries Through The Union For Mediterranean (UfM)

Elistania Elistania, Farandy Nurmeiga, Agung Permadi



The European Union is an example of regional cooperations that represents regional identity. In the midst of the process of integration and expansion of membership, the European Union has an interest in building good relations with non-member countries in the immediate region, including the Mediterranean. The process of establishing cooperation between the European Union and the Mediterranean countries continues to change. The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP) in 1995 was the place for regional cooperation with most member countries and had a well-structured pillar of cooperation. However, the two entities re-formed a new cooperative platform, The Union for Mediterranean (UfM) in 2008. This study aims to explain why the European Union and Mediterranean countries changed the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP) into The Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) in 2008. Using the theory building approach in the Alex Warleigh-Lack regionalism concept, the findings in the research resulted in an answer that EMP has negative values that are not in accordance with the development of the issue so that it becomes a reason for the formation of UfM.



European Union, Mediterranean, cooperation, regionalism, international organization

Full Text:



Barbé, Esther, and Anna Herranz Surrallés. 2010. “Dynamics of Convergence and Differentiation in Euro-Mediterranean Relations: Towards Flexible Region-Building or Fragmentation?” Mediterranean Politics 15 (2): 129–47.

Basyar, Hamdan. 2005. “Hubungan Israel-Palestina Dan Masa Depan Perdamaian Timur Tengah Pasca-Yasser Arafat.” Global: Jurnal Politik Internasional 7 (2): 58–71.

Bindi, Federiga, and Irina Angelescu. 2012. The Foreign Policy of the European Union: Assessing Europe’s Role in the World. DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Cameron, Fraser. 2012. An Introduction to European Foreign Policy. NY: Taylor & Francis.

Chandrawati, Nurani. 2004. “Tantangan Dalam Proses Perluasan Keanggotaan Uni Eropa Ke Negara-Negara Eropa Tengah Dan Timur 1992-2003.” Global: Jurnal Politik Internasional 6 (2): 65–86.

Charpentier, Loic. 2016. “Refugees’ Crisis and European Union: A Mechanical Integrative Bargain.” Global: Jurnal Politik Internasional 18 (1): 34–50.

Commision of the European Comunities. 2004. “The EU, the Mediterranean and the Middle East – A Longstanding Partnership.” 2004.

Delgado, Mireia. 2011. “France and the Union for the Mediterranean: Individualism versus Co-Operation.” Mediterranean Politics 16 (1): 39–57.

European Commission. 2011. “A Partnership For Democracy And Shared Prosperity With The Southern Mediterranean.” Brussels.

Ferrero-Waldner, Benita. 2010. “Euro-Mediterranean Partnership - The Regional Programme: An Overview of Programmes and Projects.” Brussels.

Gallup, George. 2003. The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion 2002. G - Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series. Wilmington: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Incorporated.

Gillespie, Richard. 2011. “Adapting to French ‘Leadership’? Spain’s Role in the Union for the Mediterranean.” Mediterranean Politics 16 (1): 59–78.

Guney, Nursin Atesoglu. 2008. “The Region-Building Practices of the EU in the Mediterranean: The EMP and ENP, What Is Next?” European Security 17 (1): 123–39.

Hierro, Lara. 2017. “Integrationalism and Resilience: A Dynamic Systems Analysis of EU Regional Integration in the Mediterranean and North Africa.” Resilience 3293 (April): 1–18.

Hunt, Diana. 2011. “The UfM and Development Prospects in the Mediterranean: Making a Real Difference?” Mediterranean Politics 16 (1): 171–92.

Hutabarat, Leonard. 2005. “Kegagalan Referendum Konstitusi Eropa: ‘Quo Vadis’ Uni Eropa?” Global: Jurnal Politik Internasional 8 (1): 91–105.

Juned, Mansur, Musa Maliki, and M Asrudin. 2015. “Kekuatan Politik Media Sosial: Uji Kasus Pada Revolusi Mesir 2011.” Global: Jurnal Politik Internasional 15 (1): 68–83.

Kourtikakis, Kostas, and Ekaterina Turkina. 2015. “Civil Society Organizations in European Union External Relations: A Study of Interorganizational Networks in the Eastern Partnership and the Mediterranean.” Journal of European Integration 37 (5): 587–609.

Morin, Olivier. 2005. “Le Partenariat euro-méditerranéen. A la recherche d’un nouveau souffle.” Études 402 (2): 163–74.

Nicolaidi, Kalypso, and Nicolaidis Dimitri. 2005. “The EuroMed beyond Civilisational Paradigms.” Berkeley.

Nienhaus, V. 1999. “Promoting Development and Stability through a Euro-Mediterranean Free Trade Zone?” European Foreign Affairs Review 4 (January): 501–18.

Pace, Michelle. 2007. “The Construction of EU Normative Power*.” JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies 45 (5): 1041–64.

———. 2010. “The European Union, Security and the Southern Dimension.” European Security 19 (3): 431–44.

Patten, Christopher. 2001. The Barcelona Process: The Europe-Mediterranean Partnership. Brussels: European Commission.

Perini, Pietro De. 2019. “The Changing Scope of Intercultural Dialogue in EU Mediterranean Policy.” Mediterranean Politics 00 (00): 1–27.

Philippart, Eric. 2003. “The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership: A Critical Evaluation of an Ambitious Scheme.” European Foreign Affairs Review 8: 201–20.

Schumacher, Tobias. 2011. “Germany and Central and Eastern European Countries: Laggards or Veto-Players?” Mediterranean Politics 16 (1): 79–98.

Suel, Ash. 2008. “From the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership to the Union for the Mediterranean.” Perception, 93–121.

Tovias, Alfred. 2001. “On the External Relations of the EU 21: The Case of the Mediterranean Periphery.” European Foreign Affairs Review 6.

Tovias, Alfred, and Mehmet Ugur. 2004. “Can the EU Anchor Policy Reform in Third Countries?: An Analysis of the Euro-Med Partnership.” European Union Politics 5 (4): 395–418.

UfM. 2008. “Draft Joint Declaration of the Paris Summit for the Mediterranean.” Paris.

———. 2017. “UfM Roadmap for Action.” Barcelona.

Warleigh-Lack, Alex. 2006. “Towards a Conceptual Framework for Regionalisation: Bridging ‘new Regionalism’ and ‘Integration Theory.’” Review of International Political Economy 13 (5): 750–71.

Youngs, R. 2017. Twenty Years of Euro-Mediterranean Relations. Routledge Studies in Mediterranean Politics. NY: Taylor & Francis.

Youngs, R, and Hizam Amirah Fernandez. 2005. Ten Years of Barcelona Process. Madrid: Instituto Elcano/Fride.



  • There are currently no refbacks.