Repositioning Indonesia in the Changing Maritime Landscape of the Indo-Pacific Region

Sukmawani Bela Pertiwi

Abstract


Indo-Pacific has been among the most contested regions in the past decade. After China demonstrated its ambitious goal in reviving maritime silk road with its military and economic presence, United States, India, Japan, and Australia formed a new coalition to counter this strategy. This paper aims to examine the position of Indonesia as a traditional regional maritime power in the context of this changing maritime landscape of the Indo-Pacific region. In doing so, this paper develops the concept of “the three faces of maritime power” which distinguishes maritime power into hard, soft, and normative maritime power. The findings of this paper indicates that Indonesia demonstrates less of its hard and soft power, but it capitalizes on its normative power to demonstrate its presence in the new maritime landscape of the Indo Pacific


Keywords


Indonesia; maritime power; Indo Pacific; the three faces of maritime power

Full Text:

PDF

References


Acharya, A. (2015). Asia's Emerging Democratic Power. Singapore: World Scientific.

ASEAN Secretariat. (2017). ASEAN Investment Report 2017: Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Zones in ASEAN(ASEAN@50 Special Edition). Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat.

Aso, T. (2017). On the "Arc of Freedom and Prosperity" An Address by H.E. Mr. Taro Aso, Minister for Foreign Affairs on the Occasion of the 20th Anniversary of the Founding of the Japan Forum on International . Retrieved from Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan: https://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/pillar/address0703.html

BPPK KEMENLU - PSSAT UGM. (2015). Indonesia dan Second Track Diplomacy Penyelesaian Sengketa Laut Tiongkok Selatan: Evaluasi Peran dan Langkah Ke Depan. Yogyakarta: BPPK KEMENLU - PSSAT UGM.

BPS-Statistics Indonesia. (2014). Proyeksi Penduduk Menurut Provinsi, 2010-2035 (Ribuan). Retrieved September 17, 2018, from Badan Pusat Statistik: https://www.bps.go.id/statictable/2014/02/18/1274/proyeksi-penduduk-menurut-provinsi-2010---2035.html

BPS-Statistics Indonesia. (2017). Statistics of Marine and Coastal Resources 2017. Indonesia: BPS-Statistics Indonesia.

BPS-Statistics. (n.d.). Kepadatan Penduduk Menurut Provinsi, 2010-2015. Retrieved September 27, 2018, from Badan Pusat Statistik: https://www.bps.go.id/dynamictable/2015/09/07/842/kepadatan-penduduk-menurut-provinsi-2000-2015.html

Chan, M. (2019). China begins joint naval drills with six Southeast Asian nations. Retrieved May 2020, from South China Morning Post: https://www.scmp.com/news/china/military/article/3007804/china-begins-joint-naval-drills-six-southeast-asian-nations

Chaudhury, D. R. (2019). Eyeing Southeast Asia, India builds port in Indonesia. Retrieved April 2020, from The Economic Times: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/pakistan-summons-senior-indian-diplomat-over-ceasefire-violations/articleshow/75448456.cms

China Military. (2018). Multilateral naval exercise Komodo 2018 concludes. Retrieved from China Military: http://eng.chinamil.com.cn/view/2018-05/11/content_8029268.htm

CIA. (n.d.). Country Comparison: Area. Retrieved September 17, 2018, from The World Fact Book: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2147rank.html

Cole, B. D. (2002). China's Maritime Strategy. Hampton Roads International Security Quarterly, 136-184.

Djalal, H. (1979). Perjuangan Indonesia di Bidang Hukum Laut. Bandung: Percetakan Ekonomi.

FAO. (2018). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2018 - Meeting the sustainable development goals. Rome: FAO.

Finnemore, M., & Sikkink, K. (1998). International Norm Dynamics and Political Change. International Organization, 52(4), 887-917.

FMPRC. (2019). Wang Yi Talks about Indo-Pacific Concept. Retrieved April 2020, from Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China: https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/zxxx_662805/t1685652.shtml

Honna, J. (2014). ASEAN-Japan Cooperation on Maritime Non-Traditional Security Issues: Toward A New Paradigm. In T. Shiraishi, & T. Kojima, ASEAN-Japan Relations. Singapore: ISEAS.

IISS. (2016). The Military Balance 2016. IISS.

Indian Navy. (n.d.). MILAN-18. Retrieved May 2020, from Indian Navy: https://www.indiannavy.nic.in/content/milan-18

Kapur, L. (2019). The ASEAN_US Maritime Exercise and Maritime Security. Retrieved May 2020, from Asia Martitime Transparency Initiative CSIS: https://amti.csis.org/the-asean-u-s-military-exercise-and-maritime-security/

Kartika, A. (2019). Indonesia's Image from China's Perspective on South China Sea Dispute (A Preliminary Study on China's Perception on Indonesia). GLOBAL: Jurnal Politik Internasional, 21(2), 176-197.

Kementerian Perhubungan. (2016). Statistik Perhubungan 2015: Buku I. Jakarta: Kementerian perhubungan.

Kementerian Pertahanan Republik Indonesia. (2014). Peraturan Menteri Pertahanan Republik Indonesia Nomor 19 Tahun 2012 Tentang Penyelarasan Minimum Essential Force. Retrieved September 24, 2018, from Berita Negara Republik Indonesia No. 650: http://itjen.kemhan.go.id/taxonomy/term/47?page=1

Khurana, G. S. (2019). What is the Indo-Pacific? The New Geopolitics of the Asia-Centred Rim Land. In A. Berkofsky, & S. Miracola, Geopolitics By Other Means: The Indo-Pacific Reality (p. 14). MIlano: Ledizioni Ledi Publishing.

KKP. (n.d.). Jumlah Nelayan Nasional. Retrieved September 17, 2018, from Satu Data Indonesia: https://data.go.id/dataset/jumlah-nelayan-nasional

KSP. (2018). Presiden Jokowi Presentasikan Konsep Indo-Pasifik di EAS. Retrieved April 2020, from Kantor Staf Presiden: http://ksp.go.id/presiden-jokowi-presentasikan-konsep-indo-pasifik-di-eas/

Kusumaatmadja, M. (1978). Bunga Rampai: Hukum Laut. Bandung: Bina Cipta.

Kusumasomantri, A. R. (2015). Strategi Hedging Indonesia terhadap Klaim Territorial Cina di Laut Cina Selatan. GLOBAL: Jurnal Politik Internasional, 17(1), 48-80.

Luhulima, C. (2007). Pendekatan Multi-track dalam Penyelesaian Sengketa Laut Cina Selatan: Upaya dan Tantangan. GLOBAL: Jurnal Politik Internasional, 9(1), 75-85.

Mahan, A. T. (1987). The Influence of Sea Power Upon History 1660-1783. Dover Publication.

Malik, M. (2014). Maritime Security in the Indo-Pacific: Perspectives from China, India, and the United States. London: Rowman & Littlefield.

Manners, I. (2002). Normative Power Europe: A Contradiction in Terms? Journal of Common Market Studies, 40(2), 235-58.

Marsetio. (2018). Mengembalikan Kejayaan Maritim Indonesia. Bogor: Universitas Pertahanan.

Ministry of External Affairs Government of India. (2014, November 10). Act East: India's ASEAN Journey. Retrieved September 27, 2018, from Ministry of External Affairs Government of India: https://mea.gov.in/in-focus-article.htm?24216/Act+East+Indias+ASEAN+Journey

Mishra, V. (2013). India and the Rise of the Indo-Pacific. Retrieved from The Diplomat: https://thediplomat.com/2013/09/india-and-the-rise-of-the-indo-pacific/2/

Nye, J. S. (2010). Cyber Power. Cambridge: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School.

Nye, Jr., J. (2004). Soft Power: The Means to Success In World Politics. New York: Public Affairs.

Nye, Jr., J. (2011). The Future of Power. New York: Public Affairs.

Panda, A. (2018). Pompeo's Indo Pacific Speech: Geoeconomics on A Shoestring. Retrieved September 24, 2018, from https://thediplomat.com/2018/07/pompeos-indo-pacific-speech-geoeconomics-on-a-shoestring/

Parameswaran, P. (2018). Exercise Komodo 2018 Puts Indonesia Navy in the Spotlight. Retrieved May 2020, from The Diplomat: https://thediplomat.com/2018/05/exercise-komodo-2018-puts-indonesia-navy-in-the-spotlight/

Pertiwi, S. B. (2014). Analisis Kekuatan Maritim Sebagai Komponen Utama Hard Power Indonesia di Era Presiden Joko Widodo. Konvensi Nasional V AIHII. Jakarta: AIHII.

Pertiwi, S. B. (2016). Is ASEAN Unity in Danger of the South China Sea? Retrieved September 28, 2018, from The Diplomat: https://thediplomat.com/2016/08/is-asean-unity-in-danger-from-the-south-china-sea/

Perwita, A. A. (2004). Sekuritisasi Isu Maritim: Koordinasi Nasional dan Kerangka Kerjasama Maritim Regionl di Asia Tenggara. GLOBAL: Jurnal Politik Internasional, 7(1), 35.

Reid, A. (. (2012). Indonesia Rising: The Repositioning Asia's Third Giant. Singapore: ISEAS.

Royal Australian Navy. (n.d.). KAKADU 2018. Retrieved May 2020, from Royal Australian Navy: https://www.navy.gov.au/operations-and-exercises/kakadu-2018

SIPRI. (n.d.). SIPRI Military Expenditure Database. Retrieved September 20, 2018, from SIPRI Databases: https://www.sipri.org/databases/milex

Sirmareza, T. (2017). Aplikasi Soft System Methodology dalam Analisis Diplomasi Angkatan Laut Indonesia Melalui Pengiriman Satgas Maritim TNI pada Misi UNIFIL MTF. GLOBAL: Jurnal Politik Internasional, 19(1), 58-76.

Smith, E. (2018). Australia's largest maritime exercise underway with China participating for first time. Retrieved May 2020, from ABC News: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-09-01/exercise-kakadu-hosts-china-south-china-sea-navy-maritime/10190856

Storey, I. (2018). "US Conducts 6th South China Sea FONOP under Trump" by Ian Storey. Retrieved September 27, 2018, from Yusof Ishak Institute: https://www.iseas.edu.sg/medias/commentaries/item/7200-us-conducts-6th-south-china-sea-fonop-under-trump-by-ian-storey

Supriyanto, R. A. (2012). Indonesia's Naval Modernisation: A Sea Change? RSIS Commentaries, 020.

Tamara, N. (2009). Indonesia Rising: Islam, Democracy, and the Rise of Indonesia As A Major Power. Singapore: Selected Books.

Thayer, C. A. (2012). ASEAN's Code of Conduct in the South China Sea: A Litmus Test for Community-Building? The Asia Pacific Journal, 10(34).

The Japan Times. (2019). China's ties with Cambodia pay off. Retrieved May 2020, from The Japan Times: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2019/07/25/editorials/chinas-ties-cambodia-pay-off/#.XquZiS9h2u0

Till, G. (2009). Seapower: A Guide for the Twenty-First Century (2nd Edition). London: Routledge.

Tim Jalasena. (2012). Jalan Terjal Menuju Kemerdekaan Maritim. Majalan Jalasena, pp. 6-12.

UNCTAD. (2019). Review of Maritime Transport 2019. Geneva: United Nations.

Upadhyaya, S. (2018). Maritime Security Cooperation in the Indian Ocean Region: Assessment of India’s Maritime Strategy to be the Regional “Net Security Provider”. Retrieved from Doctor of Philosophy thesis, Australian National Centre for Ocean Resources and Security, University of Wollongong: https://ro.uow.edu.au/ theses1/297

US Embassy & Consulates in Indonesia. (n.d.). Fact Sheet: U.S. Building Maritime Capacity in Southeast Asia. Retrieved April 2020, from US Embassy & Consulates in Indonesia: https://id.usembassy.gov/our-relationship/policy-history/embassy-fact-sheets/fact-sheet-u-s-building-maritime-capacity-in-southeast-asia/

World Bank. (n.d.). GDP (Current US$). Retrieved September 21, 2018, from Data: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2016&start=1960

WTO. (2017). World Trade Statistical Review 2017. Geneva: WTO.

WTO. (2019). World Trade Statistics 2019. Geneva: WTO.

Xinhua. (2015). China's Deep-Sea Sub Explores Indian Ocean Seabed. Retrieved September 27, 2018, from Xinhuanet: http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2015-01/02/c_133892691.htm




DOI: https://doi.org/10.7454/global.v22i1.438

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.